The life of Guru Govind Singh Ji

    09-Jan-2022   
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Guru Govind Singh Ji (1666-1708) was born in Patna, Bihar. He was a son of Guru Tegh Bahadur ji (Ninth Guru) and Mata Gujri. According to the Nanakshahi Calendar, the birthday of Guru Gobind Singh Sahib falls annually in January month of the Gregorian calendar. This year, the birth anniversary is falling on January 9, 2022, and this is his 355th birth anniversary.
 
Guru Govind Singh
 
Childhood
 
His birth name was Gobind Rai, and a shrine named Takht Sri Patna Harimandar Sahib marks the site of the house where he was born and spent the first four years of his life. Guru Govind Singh Ji and their family returned to Punjab in 1670. After Guru Tegh Bahadur's visit to Assam, Bengal and Bihar, the Guru ji visited Rani Champa of Bilaspur, who offered him a piece of land in her State. Guruji bought the site for 500 rupees. There, Guru Tegh Bahadur founded the city of Anandpur Sahib in the foothills of the Himalayas. In 1675 his father, Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji, was petitioned by Kashmiri Pandits for protection from the persecution by the Islamic invaders.
 
Guru Tegh Bahadur tried for a peaceful resolution by meeting Mughal emperor Aurangzeb, but because of conflicts between Sikhism and the Islamic doctrine, Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji was executed in Delhi under the orders of the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb. After this martyrdom, Sikhs installed the young Govind Rai as the Tenth Sikh Guru on Vaisakhi 1676.
 
Battle with Aurangzeb to protect Dharma
 
This war was waged by emperor Aurangzeb. Aurangzeb ordered that all Sikhs should be converted to Islam; otherwise, they would be killed. At the battle of Chamkaur in December 1705, the two elder sons of Guru Govind Singh, Ajit Singh and Jujhar Singh, were martyred in the battle. Guru's younger sons, Zorawar Singh (aged nine) and Fateh Singh (aged seven), along with Mata Gujari, were captured by Wazir Khan, the Governor of Sirhind. The Trio were told to convert to Islam or face death, but they remained steadfast in their convictions. As a result, on December 11, 1705, the two sons were ordered to be bricked up alive in a wall, but since the masonry crumbled before it covered their heads, they were executed the following day. Mata Gujari Ji was imprisoned on top of a tower that was opened from all sides. Without complaints, she left her body singing Guru Ki Bani. Mata Gujari Ji attained martyrdom on the same day as her grandsons.
 
Battles against Aurangzeb and others
 
1. Battle of Bhangani (1688)
2. Battle of Nadaun (1691)
3. Battle of Guler (1696)
4. Battle of Anandpur (1700 and 1701)
5. Battle of Nirmohgarh (1702)
6. Battle of Basoli (1702)
7. First Battle of Chamkaur (1702)
8. Battle of Anandpur (1704 and 1705)
9. Battle of Sarsa (1704)
10. The second battle of Chamkaur (1704)
11. Battle of Muktsar (1705)
 
Foundation of Khalsa(Order of the Pure):
 
Guru Govind Singh Ji founded Khalsa Panth in 1699 at Anandpur on Baisakhi. He introduced five K's, the five articles of faith that Khalsa Sikhs wear at all times, which includes KESH (uncut hair), KANGHA (a wooden comb), KARA (an iron or steel bracelet worn on the wrist.), KACHERA (short breeches) and KIRPAN (a sword or dagger)
 
Assassination
 
Nawab Wazir Khan of Sirhind ordered two of his trusted men with murdering Guru Ji. The two Pathans named Jamshed Khan and Wasil Beg pursued Guru secretly. At Nanded, one of them stabbed the Guru in the left side below the heart as he was resting in his chamber. Before he could deal another blow, Guru Govind Singh Ji struck him down with his sabre while his fleeing companion fell under the swords of Sikhs who had rushed in after hearing the noise.
 
Guruji's wounds were healed, but several days later, when he tugged at a hard, strong bow, the imperfectly healed wound burst open and caused profuse bleeding. It was again treated, but it was now clear to the Guru that the call from the Almighty was knocking on the door of his life. He prepared the Sangat for his departure; instructions were given to the immediate main Sewadars. Finally, he gave his last and enduring message of his mission to the assembly of the Khalsa.
 
He then opened the Granth Sahib, placed five paise and solemnly bowed to it as his successor, GURU GRANTH SAHIB. Then, saying ''Waheguru ji ka Khalsa, Waheguru Ji ki Fateh'', he walked around the Guru Granth Sahib and proclaimed, "O beloved Khalsa, let him who desired to behold me, behold the Guru Granth. Obey the Granth Sahib. It is the visible body of the Gurus. And let him who desires to meet me, search me in the hymns."
 
He then sang his self-composed hymn:
 
"Agya bhai Akal ki tabhi chalayo Panth Sabh Sikhan ko hukam hai Guru manyo Granth Guru Granth Ji manyo pargat Guran ki deh Jo Prabhu ko milbo chahe khoj shabad mein le Raj karega Khalsa aqi rahei na koe Khwar hoe sabh milange bache sharan jo hoe."
 
Sacrifice
 
Guru Govind Singh is a symbol of the Spirit of Righteousness, Bravery and Justice. He is also remembered for the ultimate sacrifice which no living being can imagine. For this sacrifice, he is often known as ''Sarbans Dani' which means Supreme Sacrificer as his whole family, including his father, mother and all four sons, attained martyrdom in their war for the Sikh religion against Mughal emperor Aurangzeb.