Who was Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu

Chaitanya Mahaprabhu was born to Jagannath and Shachi at Navadvipa (Nadia Dist, West Bengal. Jagannath was Vedacharya. Due to his excellence in Shastras, his Guru awarded him a title of 'Purandar Mishra'. Shachi and Jagannath had ten children. Their ninth Child was a son named Vishwaroop, who became Sanyasi at the age of 16. Their 10th child was also a son who later became Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu.
Chaitanya Mahaprabhu 
In his childhood, Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu learned grammar from Gangadasa Pandita. At the age of eleven, Śrī Chaitanya Mahāprabhu began to teach students. This marks the beginning of his kaiśora age. As soon as he became a teacher, many, many students came to him; every one of them astonished to hear his mode of explanation. After taking Sannyasa, he learned Nyaya shastra from Vasudev Bhattacharya at Jagannath Puri.
Krishna Bhakti
After the death of his father he went to Gaya to perform Shraddha (PeriKarya), where he met Ishvara Puri a Sanyasi belonging to Madhva Sect and disciple of Madhavendra Puri, who gave Mantra Diksha and induced him in Krishna Bhakti Marga. After returning home, he started the Sankirtana Movement.
At the age of twenty-four years, he accepted sannyāsa and renounced the world. He resided for twenty-four years more at Jagannātha Purī. Of these last twenty-four years, he spent the first six years continually touring India, sometimes in South India, sometimes in Bengal and sometimes in Vṛindāvana. For the remaining eighteen years he continuously stayed in Jagannātha Purī. Chanting the nectarean Hare Kṛiṣhṇa Mahā-mantra, He inundated everyone there in a flood of love of Kṛiṣhṇa.
Many anecdotes in his life were instrumental in regaining the confidence of Hindu society. In the 14th and 15th centuries, Bengal was ruled by the Ilyas Shahi dynasty, and after that, Ala-ud-din Husain Shah. Hindus were depressed, and conversion of Hindus to Islam was a normal phenomenon during this era.
Anecdotes of Chaitnya Mahaprabhu increased the confidence level of depressed Hindu Society. As a result, Hindus regained faith in their Dharma, and many converted Muslims returned to Hinduism.
Story of Chand Qazi
The story of Chand Qazi is elaborated in Chaitanya Bhagavata (Madhya Khand Adhyay 23 from Verse 100 to 425) and Chaitanya Lilamrit.
When the saṅkīrtana movement started, no one in Navadvīpa could hear any sound other than the words "Hari! Hari!" and the beating of the mṛdaṅga and the clashing of handbells. Hearing the resounding vibration of the Hare Kṛṣṇa mantra, the local Muslims became very angry and submitted a complaint to the Qazi. The Chand Qazi angrily came to one home in the evening. When he saw the kīrtana going on, he broke a mṛdaṅga, threatened the devotees to confiscate his property and convert him to Islam if he sees someone performing such saṅkīrtana next time.
The Qazi returned home, and the devotees submitted their grief to Lord Chaitanya Mahāprabhu. Lord Chaitanya ordered, “Go perform saṅkīrtana! Today I shall kill all the Muslims!"
Understanding the anxiety within the people's minds, the Mahaprabhu called them together and spoke to them as follows. "In the evening, I shall perform saṅkīrtana in each and every town. Therefore you should all decorate the city in the evening. "In the evening, burn torchlights in every home. I shall give protection to everyone. Let us see what kind of Qazi comes to a stop our kīrtana."
In the evening Lord Gaurasundara went out and formed three parties to perform kīrtana. In the front party danced Ṭhākura Haridāsa, and in the middle party danced Advaita Ācārya with great jubilation. Lord Gaurasundara himself danced in the rear party, and Śrī Nityānanda Prabhu moved with Lord Chaitanya's dancing.
Performing kīrtana in this way, circumambulating through every nook and corner of the city, they finally reached the door of the loud sound of the chanting of the Hare Kṛṣṇa mantra certainly made the Qazi very much afraid, and he hid within his room. Hearing the people thus protesting, murmuring in great anger, the Qazi would not come out of his home. Naturally, some of the people who were very much agitated began to retaliate the Qazi's actions by wrecking his house and flower garden.
Thereafter, when Śrī Chaitanya Mahāprabhu reached Qazi's house, he sat down by the doorway and sent some respectable persons to call for the Qazi.
After a discussion on Kuran and Hindu Shastra, the Qazi accepted defeat. Mahaprabhu asked him that, in his city there were always congregational chanting of the holy name. A tumultuous uproar of music, singing and dancing, and as a Muslim magistrate, he has the right to oppose the performance of Hindu ceremonies, but now he do not forbid them. "Kindly listen, O Gaurahari! If You come to a private place, I shall then explain the reason," Qazi said.
The Qazi said, "When I went to the Hindu's house, broke the drum and forbade the performance of congregational chanting, in my dreams that very night I saw a greatly fearful lion, roaring very loudly, His body like a human being's and His face like a lion's. While I was asleep, the lion jumped on my chest, laughing fiercely and gnashing his teeth. "Placing its nails on my chest, the lion said in a grave voice, 'I shall immediately bifurcate your chest as you broke the Mṛidaṅga drum! "You have forbidden the performance of my congregational chanting. Therefore I must destroy you!' Being very much afraid of Him, I closed my eyes and trembled. Just see the marks of his nails on my heart!" After this description, the Qazi showed his chest. Having heard him and seen the marks, all the people there accepted the wonderful incident.
Six Goswamis
These were six prominent disciples of Shri. Chaitanya Mahaprabhu. They wrote the teachings and philosophy of Shri. Chaitanya Mahaprabhu.
● Rupa Goswami
● Sanatana Goswami
● Jiva Goswami (nephew of Rupa and Sanatana).
● Raghunatha Bhatta Goswami
● Gopala Bhatta Goswami (1503–1578)
● Raghunatha dasa Goswami.
Chaitanya Mahaprabhu preached Bhakti yoga, also called Achintya Bheda Abheda or Gaudiya Vaishnavism. One of the defining aspects of Gaudiya Vaishnavism is that Krishna is worshipped specifically as the source of all Avataric incarnations of God. This is based on quotations from the Bhagavata Purana, such as "krsnāstu bhagavan svayam", literally "Krishna is God Himself".
Mahaprbhu disappeared in the year 1455 (1534 C.E.) on Ashadh Krishna Saptami. (14 June 1534)